Philippine Tarsier Foundation

Alibata - The Philippine Tarsier Foundation, Incorporated (PTFI) is a non-profit, non-stock corporation based in Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines, established in 1996 to conserve, promote research and establish a sanctuary for the Philippine Tarsier. It is an entirely private alibata sector initiative, but has strong support from two leading organizations in conservation and eco-tourism, namely the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the Department of Tourism (DOT). To ensure the continued existence of the Philippine Alibata Tarsier, the Foundation is attempting to bring tourism to the province of Bohol in a way that is ecologically friendly to the Philippine Tarsier.

In 1991, the Alibata DENR, through Administrative Order No. 38, included the Philippine Tarsier among the national protected wildlife species and proposed its listing under Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). In addition, the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group had given the species Conservation Priority Rating 4, which means that the species is highly vulnerable and threatened by habitat destruction and/or hunting.

Under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with the Alibata DENR signed on April 27, 1997, the Philippine Tarsier Foundation, Incorporated has the following missions: to establish a forest reserve in the island of Bohol which shall serve as the sanctuary of the Philippine tarsier; to protect and manage the tarsier sanctuary through the active participation of local communities; to establish and maintain a wildlife research laboratory for the study of the ecology and biology of the Philippine tarsier; to establish and maintain visitor facilities for ecotourism and disseminate information material about the Philippine tarsier with emphasis on the species' protection and conservation.


Tiendesitas, which literally means “a collection of little stores”, is a shopping complex located along C-5. It began its operations on September 26, 2005 and was developed by Ortigas & Co. Limited Partnership (OCLP). It rivals the highly successful and world-renowned Chatuchak Market of Bangkok, Thailand. Constructed at a cost of P200 million[2], Tiendesitas is an integral part of Frontera Verde, an interim 18.5 hectare Ortigas development project at the corner of Ortigas Avenue and E. Rodriguez Jr. Ave (C-5), Barangay Ugong, Pasig City. Other locators in Frontera Verde are SM Supercenter Pasig, a Fun Ranch for Kids, an Automall, a Wellness Center, a Technology Corridor, a Shell super station with retail outlets, and restaurants strategically spread around the complex. “Pasig City’s newest shopping and family entertainment corridor will be the Philippine’s pride,” says Cathy Casares-Ko, the head of Ortigas & Company’s Real Estate Division. Commuting to the area is not a problem since jeepney's ply the C-5 route. Bus riders, however, will have to take a short hike to get to the Tiendesitas gate. Parking is also not a problem. Tiendesitas has more than 300 parking slots for shoppers coming in with vehicles.

A welcome feature of Tiendesitas is that shopping hours are from 12 noon to 12 midnight.” This is the best time for working people who can only shop after work. And, tourists love the idea of the night market,” says Joey Santos, the general manager. Acoustics and show bands perform during weekends to create a festive atmosphere.

Greenhills Shopping Center

Greenhills Shopping Center is a tiangge-style shopping mall in San Juan, Metro Manila, the Philippines. It has over 2,000 stores, and espouses an 'indoor-outdoor' theme, with the shopping center having the appearance of several distinct buildings (some separated by a main road) that are all interconnected through pathways and bridges. It hosts a Roman Catholic chapel and a Muslim prayer room, a development which sparked protests from the local Christian-dominated community. The shopping center is bounded by Ortigas Avenue on the west, Connecticut Street on the south, Club Filipino (also known as McKinley), Eisenhower, and Annapolis streets on the north, and Missouri Street on the east. This mall faces the tip end of Wilson Street.

V-mall sports a new look with five attractions from the SM group that include the successful Toy Kingdom chain, SM Appliance Center, Our Home, Watson's, and Ace Hardware.

According to Joey Santos, V-Mall still retains the computer stores that have been favorite destinations of technology lovers and the old toy shops that have been the mecca of toy lovers and collectors from all over Metro Manila.

Totally redesigned to make it more convenient for shoppers to go around, V-mall boasts of a wider area as the escalators have been relocated to the sides instead of its old location at the middle of the mall. It also features a scenic elevator that allows shoppers to see the whole area on their way to the top levels.

Sports shops like Ralph’s Sports Shops and Planet Sport are also part of the new attractions. The Great Eats Food Court has several food outlets at the third level of V-mall together with Q-Power Station, and an arcade and amusement center. Astrovision, whose first store was at the old Virra Mall is back home in its new a 300-square meter shop. Cinderella, one of the oldest stores in the Greenhills Shopping Center, is also back with another branch in V-Mall.

Filipino mestizo

Filipino mestizo is a term used in the Philippines, to designate Filipinos of mixed indigenous Filipino (Austronesian or Malay), and foreign ancestry. The word Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço; French: Métis; all from Late Latin Mixticius, meaning "mixed"), is a "Spanish term" that was formerly used in the Spanish Empire to designate people of mixed European (Spaniard) and Amerindian ancestry living in the colonies. In the Philippines, the term "mestizo" originally bore the connotation of mixed Spaniard and indigenous Filipino. Up to the 1980's, the “Diccionario de Filipinismos” of Wenceslao Retana, misleadingly defined the term “mestizo” as individuals who are descendants of Chinese Christians and their indigenous Filipino wives. Some Filipinos are mestizos and most likely have Spanish ancestry. This is because some Filipinos have European blood than others most of them who are rich, and often, only those Filipinos who possessed mixed appearances are considered by most as mestizos.

After the defeat of Spain during the Spanish-American War in 1898, the Philippine Islands and other remaining Spanish colonies were ceded to the United States in the Treaty of Paris, for 20 million dollars. Civil government was established by the Americans in 1901, with William Howard Taft as the first American Governor-General of the Philippines. English was declared the official language. Six hundred American teachers were imported aboard the USS Thomas.


A barangay (Tagalog: barangay, [ˈbaraŋgaj]), also known by its former Spanish adopted name, the barrio, is the smallest local government unit in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward. Municipalities and cities are composed of barangays. In place names barangay is sometimes abbreviated as "Brgy" or "Bgy". As of December 31, 2006 there are a total of 41,995 barangays all over the Philippines.

The term barangay and its structure in the modern context was conceived during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos, replacing the old barrios and municipal councils. The barangays were eventually codified under the 1991 Local Government Code.

A barangay is led and governed by its barangay officials. The "barangay officials" is considered as a Local Governent Unit (LGU) same as the Provicial and the Municipal Government. It is composed of a Punong Barangay, seven (7) Barangay Councils or Barangay Kagawad, and a Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Chairman which is considered as a member of the Council. Thus, there are eight (8) members of the Legislative Council in a barangay. Each member has its own respective committee where they are Chairmen of those committees. The Committees are the following: (1) Peace and Order Committee, (2) Infrastructure Committee, (3) Education Committee, (4) Health Committee, (5) Agriculture Committee, (6) Tourism Committee, (7) Finance Committee, and (8) Youth and Sports Committee. There are three (3) appointed members of each committee.

Bohol festivals

Tagbilaran City Fiesta (May 1).
The feast of Saint Joseph, patron saint of Tagbilaran City, starts the month-long fiestas in Bohol. It is one of the most exciting and fun-filled occasions of the year. During the novena, or nine days before the day itself, nightly entertaining activities are held, such as the "Mutya sa Tagbilaran" beauty pageant, literary musical shows, concerts, dramas and stage plays, and many more.

Bolibong Kingking Festival (May 23-24).
This is a music and dance festivity depicting the history, folklore, and traditions of the Loboc, Bohol. Bolibong Kingking is a term applied to the drums and gongs and their rhythm used to accompany the supplication dance ritual in front of the Image of Our Lady of Guadalupe, the 2nd Patron of Loboc, Bohol.

Pana-ad sa Loboc (Holy Thursday & Good Friday).
In observance of the Semana Santa or Holy Week, the Lobocanons read the "Pasyon" and do a penitential procession through the way of the cross that culminates at "Cruz Daku," a huge cross 80 feet in height which is on top of the highest hill of Loboc where one can view the neighboring towns, including Tagbilaran City.

Sambat Mascara y Regatta Festival (1st Saturday of December).
The festival is celebrated in honor of Loay town's second patron, St. Francis Xavier. Colorful activities are lined up, like the agro-industrial fair, group masked street dancing, drum and bugle competition, boat racing along the river, and many more. The event is highlighted by a fluvial parade of the image along the river.

Suroy sa Musikero (December 25 - February 2).
This is when the town musicians of Loboc cover daily the assigned areas to partake of the food served by the host and to play music to the tune of Kuradang, Dalaga sa Baybayon, and others. This is also the period when carolers render Christmas songs to the families of the host area.

2006 Dalit Bisaya

Various groups have thought of holding a Bisaya or Cebuano-Visayan cultural festival in Cebu. In 1999 the Kapunongang Bisaya sa Kadak-ang Manila under Gen. Lisandro Abadia ang Chief Justice Marcelo Fernan discussed a plan for it. Later in 1999 and 2000 another and a larger group led by Atty. Napoleon Rama and Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. made detailed plans for a Visayan concert in Cebu and adopted a plan to form the Kulturang Bisaya Foundation to support its cultural activities.

The 2006 Dalit Bisaya (officially Dalit Bisaya: A Cebu Visayan Cultural Festival) was a series of exhibits, cultural shows, and a symposium, sponsored by the Kapunongang Bisaya sa Manila and hosted by the University of San Carlos (Cebu City, Philippines). It ran from December 1 to 3, 2006, with the activities held in SM Cebu and campuses of the host university. The tagline was Panaghiusa Pinaagi sa Kultura (Unity through Culture).

The 2006 Dalit Bisaya was orchestrated by a group composed of Jesus Alcordo, Dr. Magdaleno Albarracin, Dr. Jose Abueva, Dr. Francisco Nemenzo, Baltazar Endriga and Yolanda Bacani.


The Aeta (pronounced as “eye-ta,”), Agta or Ayta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of Luzon, the Philippines. They are considered to be Negritos, who are dark to very dark brown skinned and tend to have features such as a small stature, small frame, curly hair, small nose, and dark brown eyes. They are thought to be the first inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations.

The Aeta were included in the group of people termed "Negrito" during Spanish colonial rule as Negritos. Various Aeta groups in northern Luzon are known as "Pugut" or "Pugot," a name designated by their Ilocano-speaking neighbors, and which is the colloquial term for those with darker complexions. In Ilocano, the word also means "goblin" or "forest spirit."

All Aeta communities have adopted the language of their Austronesian neighbors, which have sometimes diverged over time to become different languages. These include, in order of number of speakers, Mag-indi, Mag-antsi, Abellen, Ambala, and Mariveleño.


The term Negrito refers to several dwindling ethnic groups in isolated parts of Southeast Asia. No other living human population has experienced such long-lasting isolation from contact with other groups. Their current populations include the Aeta, Agta, Ayta, Ati, Dumagat and at least 25 other tribes of the Philippines, the Semang of the Malay peninsula, the Mani of Thailand and 12 Andamanese tribes of the Andaman Islands of India.

Negritos share common physical features with African pygmy populations, including short stature and dark skin, however, their origin and the route of their migration to Asia is still a matter of great speculation. They are genetically distant from Africans and Asians, suggesting that they are either surviving descendents of settlers from an early migration out of Africa, or that they are descendents of one of the founder populations of modern humans.

The term "Negrito" is the Spanish diminutive of Negro, i.e. "little black person", referring to their small stature, and was coined by early European explorers who assumed that the Negritos were from Africa. Occasionally, some Negrito are referred to as pygmies, bundling them with peoples of similar physical stature in Central Africa, and likewise, the term Negrito was previously occasionally used to refer to African Pygmies.

According to James J.Y. Liu, a professor of comparative literature, the Chinese term Kun-lun (traditional Chinese: 崑崙) means Negrito.


Mangyan is the generic name for the eight indigenous groups found in Mindoro island, each with its own tribal name, language, and customs.

The ethnic groups from north to south of the island are: Iraya, Alangan, Tadyawan, Tawbuid (called Batangan by lowlanders on the west of the island), Buhid, Hanunoo. An additional group on the south coast is labelled Ratagnon. They appear to be intermarried with lowlanders. The group known on the east of Mindoro as Bangon may be a subgroup of Tawbuid, as they speak the 'western' dialect of that language.

The total population may be around 100,000, but no official statistics are available because of the difficulties of counting remote and reclusive tribal groups, many of which have no contact with the outside world.

Mangyan are mainly subsistence agriculturalists, planting a variety of sweet potato, upland (dry cultivation) rice, and taro. They also trap small animals and wild pig. Many who live in close contact with lowland Filipinos sell cash crops such as bananas and ginger.

Their languages are mutually unintelligible, though they share some vocabulary. Tawbuid and Buhid are closely related, and are unusual among Philippine languages in using the /f/ phoneme. Tawbuid is divided into eastern and western dialects. Western Tawbuid may be the only Philippine language to have no glottal phonemes, having neither /h/ or /ʔ/.

Dasmariñas, Cavite

The Municipality of Dasmariñas (often shortened to Dasma; Filipino: Bayan ng Dasmariñas) is a first class urban municipality in the province of Cavite, Philippines. It is located approximately 30 kilometers south of Manila. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 379,520 people in 77,315 households, making it the most populous municipality in the Philippines. It has a land area of 90.1 square kilometers. Dasmariñas is part of Cavite's second congressional district. Jenny Barzaga, wife of former Mayor Atty. Elpidio "Pidi" Barzaga, is now the new municipal mayor.

Besides being the richest local government unit in the province of Cavite according to the 2006 Commission on Audit report, Dasmariñas is the only municipality in the Philippines that has both an SM and Robinsons Mall.

Dasmariñas is partly lowland and partly hill. The Poblacion itself is elevated. From an elevation of 80 meters at the Poblacion, the land rises to 250 meters towards Silang. Generally, land near rivers and creeks are rugged. Dasmariñas is outside the typhoon belt and has no fault line constraints. Further, it is served by natural drainage system since it is traversed by several rivers and water tributaries draining to the Manila Bay. The town has not yet to experienced floods.

Celebes Sea

The Celebes Sea (or the Sulawesi Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia . The Sea is in the form of a huge basin, and plunges as deep as 6,200 m. It extends 420 miles (675 km) north-south by 520 miles (837 km) east-west and has a total surface area of 110,000 square miles (280,000 square km). The sea opens southwest through the Makassar Strait into the Java Sea.

The Celebes Sea is a piece of an ancient ocean basin that formed 42 million years ago in a setting far from any land mass. By 20 million years ago, crustal movement had pushed the Celebes basin close enough to the Indonesian and Philippine volcanoes to receive volcanic debris. By 10 million years ago the Celebes Sea was inundated with continental debris, including coal, which was shed from a rapidly growing young mountain on Borneo and the basin had docked against Eurasia.

The Celebes Sea has somewhat attained an international notoriety for its pirates who prey not only on small time fishermen but also giant container ships. Nowadays, these pirates have high-tech weapons and equipment like radar and GPS navigation devices and ride on high-speed motorboats.


Sarangani is a province of the Philippines located in the SOCCSKSARGEN region in Mindanao. Its capital is Alabel and borders South Cotabato to the north and Davao del Sur to the east. To the south lies the Celebes Sea. The province is divided into two parts, separated by the Sarangani Bay, and it used to be part of South Cotabato until it was made an independent province in 1992.

Sarangani is subdivided into 7 municipalities grouped into two parts, separated by the Sarangani Bay. The western part consists of Kiamba, Maasim, and Maitum, while the eastern part is composed of Alabel, Glan, Malapatan, and Malungon.

Before its inception in 1992, Sarangani was part of South Cotabato and held its title as the Lone Third District of South Cotabato. Created by Repulic Act No. 7228 on March 16, 1992 it was one of the newest districts of the time penned by the late Congressman, James L. Chiongbian. His wife, Priscilla L. Chiongbian is the retired Governor of Sarangani.

Koronadal City

The City of Koronadal, also known as Marbel, is the capital city of South Cotabato province in the Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it had a population of 133,786 people in 27,623 households.

Koronadal became a component city in 2000. By virtue of Executive Order No. 304, dated March 30, 2004, Koronadal City became the regional center of the SOCCSKSARGEN region. In 2007, it was recognized "Most Competitive City" in the small-city category.

The municipal government of Koronadal began its official function on January 1, 1948 with an approved Annual Estimated Budget of P30,000.00. The land area of the municipality by then was comparable with the Province of Bata-an embracing the present municipalities of Tampakan, Tupi, Banga, Lake Sebu, Surallah, T'Boli, Sto. Niño, Norala, and Isulan.

Municipal Council Resolution No. 32, Series of 1948 mandated and proclaimed January 10 of each year as the Municipal Town Fiesta commemorating the foundation of Marbel Settlement District of the National Land Settlement.

Koronadal was converted into a component city of South Cotabato now known as the City of Koronadal by virtue of Republic Act 8803 on October 8, 2000.

Camp John Hay

John Hay Air Base, more commonly known as Camp John Hay, was a major hill station located near Baguio City used for rest and recreation for personnel and dependents of the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines as well as Department of Defense employees and their dependents. It was last run by the United States Air Force. While officially designated a communications station, the facility was mainly used for rest and recreation. The facility housed The American Residence as well as Broadcasting facilities of the Voice of America.

Just before the facility was turned over to the Philippines, it had 290 fully-furnished rooms in the different cottages, duplexes, apartments, and lodges, which are scattered about the complex. Some of these billeting units were equipped with color television sets, refrigerators, and cooking facilities.

The base's popular spots are the 19th Tee, Halfway House, Scout Hill baseball field, Main Club (also known as Officer's Building), and the well-known Mile-Hi Recreation Center. It was off-limits to the general public, except for some who had access due to connections or official business.

Laguna Copperplate

The Laguna Copperplate inscription (also shortened to LCI) is the first written document found in a Philippine language. Found in 1989 in Laguna de Bay, in the metroplex of Manila, Philippines, the LCI has inscribed on it a date of Saka era 822, corresponding to 900 CE. It contains many words from Sanskrit, old Javanese, old Malay and old Tagalog. The document releasing its bearer, Namwaran, from a debt in gold. The document mentions the places of Tondo, Pila and Pulilan in the area around Manila Bay and Medan, Indonesia. The discovery of the Inscription has highlighted the evidence found of cultural links present between the Tagalog speaking people of this time and the various contemporary civilizations in Asia, most notably the Middle kingdoms of India and the Srivijaya empire, a topic in Philippine history in which not much is presently known.

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, among other discoveries made in recent years in the country such as the Golden Tara of Butuan and 14th century pottery and gold jewellery artifacts found in Cebu, is highly important in revising the ancient history of the Philippine archipelago (which prior to the LCI discovery was considered by western historians to be culturally isolated from the rest of Asia, as no evident pre-hispanic written records were found at the time). It sheds light on the ancient Philippine history, which was previously largely ignored due to the dominantly Hispanic-derived culture present during the Spanish occupation. This document is considered a National treasure and rests in the National Museum of the Philippines in Manila.

Pagsanjan Laguna

Pagsanjan (pronounced 'Pag-sang-han') is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 32,622 people in 7,274 households. It is situated about 92 kilometers south of Manila. The main tourist spot of Pagsanjan is the Pagsanjan Fall or (Magdapio Falls). A particular highlight is the boatride which passes through 14 rapids maneuvered by boatmen between rocks and boulders that leads to the main falls.

Pagsanjan is named as the tourist capital of Laguna and is the home of the Bankero Festival. The 'bangkeros' are tour guides that steer the tourists' bancas, they are called the boatmen who shoot the rapids all the way to the famous Pagsanjan Falls. These festivities is celebrated in the month of March.

The incumbent mayor of Pagsanjan, Laguna is Hon. Emilio Ramon Ejercito - Estrada, coloquially "E.R." by the residents of Pagsanjan.

Pagsanjan has a land area of 26.4 square kilometres. It is located 101 kilometers south of Manila. It is bounded on the east by the Balubad Mountain; on the west by the capital town of Santa Cruz; on the north by the San Isidro Hill and Laguna de Bay; on the northeast by the town of Lumban; on the southeast by the towns of Cavinti and Luisiana; on the south by Mount Banahaw; and on the southwest by the town of Magdalena.


Aparri is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Cagayan, Luzon, Philippines. Aparri sits at the mouth of the Cagayan River, the longest river in the country, about 55 miles north of Tuguegarao, the capital. According to the 2000 census, Aparri has a population of 59,046 people in 11,019 households.

The valley is one of the largest tobacco-producing sections in the Philippines; and the town has a considerable coastwise trade. Here, too, is a meteorological station.

Aparri was a Japanese trading post established on the northern tip of Luzon sometime after 1400.

In 2006, work was started to build a port, after the old pier deteriorated due to the rising level of water, the common storms, and poor construction (ruins of it are now seen washed up on the beach). It is expected to be a 1st class municipality after the work is done.

Ilagan, Isabela

Ilagan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Isabela, Philippines. It is the capital municipality and the largest town of Isabela (both land area and total population), located at the junction of the Cagayan and Pinacanauan Rivers. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 119,990 people in 24,085 households.

The conversion of Ilagan, Isabela on February 2, 1998 (RA 8474) for citihood will make the largest city in the province. But the plebiscite which was held on March 14, 1999 turned down its bid for citihood under the Administration of former Mayor Mercedes P. Uy. The majority of the people voted 'no' in that historic event.

There are 29.313 km of concrete out of 24.56 km. Of national growth that passes through the municipality. Other road networks are 33,005 km provincial roads, 8,909 municipal streets and 269,713 km of barangay roads.

Ilagan is accessible by all means of land transportation. From the Poblacion to the 91 barangays and five adjacent municipalities. The regular jeepneys trips from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm while tricycle trips for 24 hours.

There are terminals of 5 transport companies with air-con buses in the Poblacion while other buses passes by to and from Tuguegarao and Manila.

Cagayan Valley

Cagayan Valley (Lambak ng Cagayan in Filipino) is a region of the Philippines, also designated as Region II or Region 02. It is composed of five provinces, namely: Batanes, Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Quirino. Its regional center is Tuguegarao City.

Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeastern Luzon, between the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre mountain ranges. Cagayan River, the country's longest river runs through its center and flows out to Luzon Strait in the north, in the town of Aparri, Cagayan. The Babuyan and Batanes island groups that lie in the Luzon Strait also belong to the region.

The Philippine Republic's Region II, Cagayan Valley, contains two landlocked provinces, Quirino and Nueva Vizcaya. Both are relatively small in size (3057 for Quirino, 4081 for Nueva Vizcaya) and population (147,000 and 365,000, respectively, by the 2000 census). Both are ruggedly mountainous and heavily forested. Nueva Vizcaya is the remnant of the southern province created when Cagayan Province was divided in two in 1839. Both are ethnically and linguistically diverse, with a substrate of Agtas, Negritos who are food-gatherers with no fixed abode, overlaid by Ilonggos and others in a number of tribes, some of whom were fierce head-hunters until recently (we are firmly assured that they have given up the practice), with the latest but largest element of the population being Ilocanos. Nueva Vizcaya comprises fifteen towns; Bayombong is the capital. Agriculture in both has until recently consisted of slash-and-burn cultivation of corn and maize, though more stable cultivation of vegetables and fruits is becoming established. Both also produce logs, and are trying to manage their forest resources so that production can be sustained indefinitely. They have deposits of gold, silver, copper, iron. Nueva Vizcaya has sand and clay. At Balete Pass in Nueva Vizcaya the retreating Japanese under General Yamashita dug in and held on for three months against the American and Filipino forces who eventually drove them out; the pass is now called Dalton Pass in honor of General Dalton, USA, who was killed in the fighting.

San Fernado City

The City of San Fernando, (Kapampangan: Lakanbalen ning San Fernando/Siudad ning San Fernando; Filipino: Lungsod ng San Fernando) is a 2nd class city in the province of Pampanga, Philippines. It is the capital city of Pampanga and the regional center of Central Luzon (Region III). The city is well known for its giant lanterns and it is also popularly known as the "Christmas Capital of the Philippines." In fact, an annual Giant Lantern Festival is held every December in the city.

According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 221,857 people in 43,649 households. It is located 67 kilometers north of Manila, 50 kilometers east of Subic Bay in Zambales province, and 16 kilometers south of Clark Field in Angeles City. The city is positioned at the crossroads of Central Luzon. The city is named after Fernando VI and placed under the patronage of San Fernando, King of Castile and Leon, whose feast is celebrated on May 30.

The tourism industry of the city is fueled by two major events, the annual Good Friday Lenten rites in San Pedro Cutud and the Giant Lantern Festival in December. Both events draw thousands of tourists from around the country and the world.

Angeles City

Angeles City (Tagalog: Lungsod ng Angeles; Kapampangan: Ciudad ning Angeles), geographically located within the province of Pampanga in the Philippines, is locally classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 267,788.

Angeles is served by the Diosdado Macapagal International Airport inside the Clark Special Economic Zone (formerly Clark Air Base and now renamed Clark Freeport Zone), which is located on the northwestern part of the city. Being the former home of the biggest American base outside of the United States mainland, it was significantly affected by the base pullout brought about by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 as the economy of Angeles then was heavily dependent on the US base.

Endowed with economic and business opportunities, Angeles is dubbed as the "Entertainment Capital of Central Luzon." Sisig is one dish that exemplifies all these and is a favorite dish among Filipinos, which, according to the Center for Kapampangan Studies, originated from this city and has been at the menu since the 1730s, thus it has also become known as the culinary center in Pampanga.


Cabanatuan was founded as Barrio of Gapan in 1750 and became a Municipality and capital of La Provincia de Nueva Ecija in 1780. In 1899, Emilio Aguinaldo moved the Capital of the First Philippine Republic from Malolos to Cabanatuan. Cabanatuan is the site of the historical "Plaza Lucero" and the Cabanatuan Cathedral, where General Antonio Luna was ambushed on his way to Palanan. Cabanatuan lost the title of capital in 1850 when the capital of Nueva Ecija was moved to San Isidro, another historic town. It was only in 1917, when the Administrative code was enacted, that Cabanatuan was restored as capital of the Province. However, in 1965, Congress created Palayan City, which has been the capital ever since. Cabanatuan was declared a Highly Urbanized City in 1998.

During World War II, the occupying Japanese built Cabanatuan Prison Camp, where many American soldiers were imprisoned, some of whom had been forced to endure the infamous "Bataan Death March." In January 1945 elements of the US Army marched far behind enemy lines to rescue the prisoners in what became known as the Raid at Cabanatuan.